Cybermed Update September 2000

The Right to Food Is a Basic Human Right

Decide, mother, who goes without.
Is it Rama, the strongest,
or Baca, the weakest,
who may not need it much longer,
or perhaps Sita?
Who may be expendable?
Decide, mother;
kill a part of yourself
as you resolve the dilemma.
- Appadura (poem from India)

The Hunger Site ( is the world's first "click-to-donate" site where more than 88 million visitors have donated more than 10,000 metric tons of free food to help feed the hungry. They have done this by visiting The Hunger Site daily and simply clicking a button. The donations of staple food, paid for by The Hunger Site's sponsors, are distributed to the world's hunger hot-spots by the United Nations World Food Programme.

About 24,000 people die every day from hunger or hunger-related causes. This is down from 35,000 ten years ago, and 41,000 twenty years ago. Three-fourths of the deaths are children under the age of five. It is estimated that some 800 million people in the world suffer from hunger and malnutrition, about 100 times as many as those who actually die from it each year.


An online publication of the World Hunger Education Service (WHES). See special report The Right to Food Is a Basic Human Right.

The mission of World Hunger Education Service is to undertake programs, including Hunger Notes, which:


The Food and Agriculture Organization was founded in October 1945 with a mandate to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, to improve agricultural productivity, and to better the condition of rural populations. Since its inception, FAO has worked to alleviate poverty and hunger by promoting agricultural development, improved nutrition and the pursuit of food security - the access of all people at all times to the food they need for an active and healthy life. The Organization offers direct development assistance, collects, analyses and disseminates information, provides policy and planning advice to governments and acts as an international forum for debate on food and agriculture issues.

A specific priority of the Organization is encouraging sustainable agriculture and rural development, a long-term strategy for the conservation and management of natural resources. It aims to meet the needs of both present and future generations through programmes that do not degrade the environment and are technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable.


WFP is the food aid arm of the United Nations system. Food aid is one of the many instruments that can help to promote food security, which is defined as access of all people at all times to the food needed for an active and healthy life. ¹ The policies governing the use of World Food Programme food aid must be oriented towards the objective of eradicating hunger and poverty. The ultimate objective of food aid should be the elimination of the need for food aid.

Targeted interventions are needed to help to improve the lives of the poorest people - people who, either permanently or during crisis periods, are unable to produce enough food or do not have the resources to otherwise obtain the food that they and their households require for active and healthy lives.

Consistent with its mandate, which also reflects the principle of universality, WFP will continue to:

The core policies and strategies that govern WFP activities are to provide food aid:


Friends of the World Food Programme is a U.S.-based nonprofit organization that is dedicated to increasing awareness of the issue of hunger worldwide and mobilizing support for the United Nations World Food Programme's operations that alleviate hunger.


Founded in 1979, Action Against Hunger is a Non-Governmental, apolitical, non-denominational organisation. Although still independent, it is part of a larger French 'sans frontières' movement. Present in 36 countries, Action Against Hunger works according to a code of action, of founding principles and a line of conduct to which its charter refers.


An additional link which I came across that could be useful.


The American Heart Association announced simplified CPR guidelines for aiding victims of cardiac arrest. The new guidelines drop the differing ratios of chest compressions to rescue breaths that had been recommended depending on how many people were assisting in giving CPR. Now they simply recommend 15 chest compressions alternating with two breaths until emergency defibrillation can be administered. Among other changes were using chest compressions to help clear the airways of a choking victim, using two thumbs rather than two fingers to perform CPR on infants and on what drugs should be used by emergency care professionals.See AHA 2005 guidelines at .

International CPR and ECC Guidelines 2000
Major Changes and Revisions

ECC Guidelines 1992

CPR Techniques

CPR and ECC Guidelines 2000

CPR Techniques

Lay rescuers check for pulse when deciding whether to administer chest compressions. Lay rescuers check for signs of circulation, such as normal breathing, coughing or movement in response to stimulation when determining if they should administer chest compressions.
Lay rescuers performing adult CPR provide 15 chest compressions for every 2 rescue breaths when one rescuer is present, and five compressions to one breath when two rescuers are present. Lay rescuers performing adult CPR provide 15 chest compressions for every 2 rescue breaths, regardless of whether one and two rescuers are present.
For an unconscious choking victim, lay rescuers would attempt ventilation, open the airway and look for a foreign body, perform abdominal thrusts (Heimlich Maneuver) and continue CPR. To treat an unconscious adult choking victim, lay rescuers begin standard CPR including chest compressions and will not conduct abdominal thrusts or blind finger sweeps of the mouth.
Public Access to Defibrillation Public Access to Defibrillation
Recommends early defibrillation be given. Recommends as a goal delivery of electric shock by a defibrillator within 5 minutes for an out-of-hospital sudden cardiac victim and within 3 minutes for an in-hospital victim.
Recommends early defibrillation be given. Recommends that AEDs be placed where there is a reasonable probability of one sudden cardiac arrest occurring every five years.
Recommends that all personnel whose jobs require that they perform CPR be trained to operate defibrillators, particularly automated external defibrillators. In addition to healthcare providers, identifies specific lay responders who should be trained in CPR and the use of an AED, including police, firefighters, security personnel, ski patrol members, ferryboat crews and airline flight attendants.
International Involvement International Involvement
International resuscitation councils participated to a limited extent in the development of guidelines, but formal approval for use in countries outside the U.S. is limited. Resuscitation councils from around the world participated in guidelines development and officially approved the guidelines for use in countries outside the U.S.
Ethics Ethics
In the pre-hospital setting, EMS providers must be trained to deal sensitively with family members and others present and the involvement of a member of the clergy or a social worker should be considered. For in-hospital resuscitation efforts, especially for infants and children, family presence during resuscitation attempts has positive psychological value, provided that a designated staff member is able to remain with the family during the resuscitation.
Infant and Pediatric Care Infant and Pediatric Care
Drugs for treating life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms are addressed. Recommendation of new drugs to treat life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms and new treatments for emergencies such as drug overdose or poisoning (not included in previous guidelines) are recommended.
Advanced Cardiovascular Life
Advanced Cardiovascular Life
Endotracheal intubation is considered the "gold standard" for airway control. For airway management and ventilation, healthcare providers should have proficiency in bag-mask devices because they are an effective method of "breathing" for the patient. The decision to use the bag-mask device vs. tracheal tube method should be based on the patient's condition and the rescuer's experience. Also new recommendations are made for preventing and detecting tracheal tube displacement.
Use of an EKG is recommended, but clot-busting drugs are not widely available. New clot-busting drugs are effective in treating heart attack and stroke but must be administered within a few hours of the onset of symptoms, therefore, recommendations are made for healthcare providers to:
  n Use a 12-lead electrocardiogram (EKG) in the pre-hospital setting to determine heart damage,
n Recognize if a heart attack or stroke victim is eligible for clot-busting therapy and notify the hospital that the patient is on the way,
n Transport a patient to a hospital capable of providing the most effective treatment.

Locations of visitors to this page

With that I let your "mouse" or your "keyboard" do the "talking".

Till next month, "Happy Surfing".

Cyberdoc ( )

The links to URL mentioned above are valid at the time of writing (25 September 2000).

Updated 15 January 2006.

This page can be accessed at or at

Vads Corner Homepage ( )